FOCUS: MALCOM LITTLE NATIONALITY: UNITED STATE OF AMERICA OCCUPATION: POLITICIAN AND HUMAN RIGHT ACTIVISTS PLACE OF BIRTH: OMAHA, NEBRASKA, U.S.A PARENTS: EARL LITTLE (FATHER) LOUISE LITTLE (MOTHER) ORGANIZATION: FOUNDER OF BLACK PANTHER GROUP RELIGION: ISLAM DATE OF BIRTH: 19TH MAY, 1925 DATE OF DEATH: 21ST FEBRUARY, 1965 PLACE OF DEATH: AUDUBON BALLROOM, NEW YORK ISLAMIC NAME: EL- HAJJ MALIK EL-SHABAZZ FAMILY BACKGROUND • Born in the year 1925 of May 19th into the family of Earl and Louise little (Pan- African Activist). • Marcus Garvey is the role model of MALCOM X parents because of his Pan- Africanism movement • As a result of the attachment the family had with Marcus Garvey, they faced so many harassment by the Ku Klux Klan • When MALCOM was 4 years old his family house was burned down. • He and his family moved to Michigan and were threatened by the Black Legion (a group that emerged from the Ku Klux Klan) • MALCOM's uncles (4 in number) were recorded to have been murdered by White racist. • MALCOM lost his father (Earl Little) when he was 6 years old. • The official news of his death was as “streetcar accident” but MALCOM’s mother (Louise Little) believe he was murdered by the Black Legion. • At the age of 13, Louise Little (Malcolm's mother) was committed to a mental institution. • Her children (MALCOM and his siblings) were splited and kept in different foster homes. THE BEGINNING OF MALCOM X • According to reports, MALCOM was an excellent student but had to drop out of school because a white teacher told him “it was unrealistic for a young black boy to have aspirations of becoming a lawyer” • He relocated to Harlem at the age of 18 after spending a few years in Michigan and Boston. • During his stay at Harlem, MALCOM was involved in gambling, robbery, drug dealing and pimping. • When he was 21 years of age, after committing a string of robberies with a small gang in Boston, He was arrested and sentenced to 8-10 years at Charlestown state prison. • Incarceration was the beginning of MALCOM’S transformation. • While in prison, his siblings were writing to him about the Nation of Islam and it’s leader Elijah Muhammad.• Elijah Muhammad taught his followers a form of SEPARATISM from Whites who were actually considered “devils” inferior to black people who were the original inhabitants of Earth. • MALCOM who was initially hostile to the idea of any religion eventually became a member of the Nation of Islam. • He read books constantly, and began writing regularly to Elijah Muhammad while still serving his jail terms. • Elijah Muhammad taught his followers to abandon their given family names as they were actually names of their former slave owners. • This was the action that made MALCOM change his name from MALCOM LITTLE to MALCOM X. THE INTRODUCTION OF MALCOM X TO THE U.S.A WORLD • After being released from prison, MALCOM X visited Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. • In June (the year after his first official visitation to Elijah Muhammad), he was named “Assistant Minister Of The Nation Of Islam's Temple NO.1 in Detroit, U.S.A. • MALCOM later on established Boston’s Temple No.11 and expanded Temple No.12 in Philadelphia. • He was selected to lead Temple No.7 in Harlem where he was responsible for huge surge of membership. • The FBI had him under surveillance due to his sudden profile as the Nations Rising Star. MALCOM’S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MULTITUDE. • MALCOM’S rise to national prominence happened in 1957, when he intervened at a police station to arrange for medical assistance and legal help for members of the Islamic Nation who had been beaten and arrested by New York police. • The crowd of protesters outside grew to almost 4,000. • Witnessing MALCOM’S control of the crowd shook the New York police department, within weeks, they had him under surveillance and officially began infiltrating the Nation. MALCOM’S MARRIAGE. • In 1958, MALCOM married his wife Betty with whom he had six daughters. • Qubilah Shabazz, Gamilah Lumumba Shabazz, Malikah Shabazz, Ilyasah Shabazz, Attallah Shabazz and Malaak Shabazz are the names of the daughters MALCOM and BETTY had together. MALCOM’S INTERNATIONAL EXPOSURE • MALCOM’S profile continued to grow via print and television appearances and he began to gain international exposure. • MALCOM made a popular statement during one of his public addresses to encourage the blacks and criticize the white, which says “Who is it that controls this prostitution in Harlem? It’s the white man. Who controls the large amount of sales of whiskey and wine? It’s the white man. Who gives you the deck of cards and dice that guy use to gamble with? It’s the white man. And after he sell 'em to guy, he catch you with 'em and put you in jail for using 'em” • He was deeply critical of the growing civil rights movement and it’s leaders like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr who preached integration. THE CLASH BETWEEN ELIJAH MUHAMMAD AND MALCOM X • MALCOM’S message were being heard louder than ever, but the relationship with the man who had transformed his life was about to fracture. • Tensions were growing within the Nation over the amount of attention MALCOM was receiving compared to his mentor, Elijah Muhammad. • An unprovoked raid on a Nation of Islam mosque by police in Los Angeles led to one member paralyzed and another killed. No charges were laid against the police. • He made another statement during a conference with the Nation of Islam. This time around, he was trying to convince every black citizen to express their feelings to every white citizen they are dealing with and the statement was said as followed “The white man believes you when you go to him with that old sweet talk cause you've been sweet talking him ever since he bought you here. Stop sweet talking him! Tell him how you feel, Tell him how, what kind of hell you've been catching and let him know that if he's not ready to clean his house up, he shouldn’t have a house. It should catch on fire and burn down” • Malcom was reportedly stunned by Elijah Muhammad's refusal to allow any form of response or retaliation for the incident. • Elijah Muhammad also disagreed with MALCOM’S desire to begin working with civil rights organizations, black politicians and other religious organizations. • In an interview, MALCOM made some revelations that made the tension with the Islam Nation increase saying “Well in reality, I never even left the Muslim movement, they put me out. And they put me out because of what I knew, And what I knew was told to me by Mr. Muhammad's son Wallace Muhammad himself. They put me out and they put him out” He was asked by the interviewer after listing names of some children whom he claimed was revealed to him by Wallace Muhammad saying: “who is the father of all these various children whom you have enumerated?” He replied saying: “ The first one to tell me who the father was, was Wallace Muhammad and he told that the Father was Elijah Muhammad himself.” The interview furthered his interrogations by asking: “And how many of these illegitimate children did he father with the sisters?” He replied saying: “Well he made six sisters pregnant, They all had children. Two of those six had two children, I am told that there is a seventh sister who is supposed to be in Mexico right now and she is supposed to be having a child by him.” Finally, the interviewer threw a realistic question by asking him: “Are you not perhaps afraid of what might happen to you as a result of making these revelations?” He replied simply by saying: “Oh yes, I probably I’m a dead man already” • MALCOM’S response to the President John.F.Kenndy assassination led to him being officially silenced for 90 days because of the self-claimed misunderstood statement. “The chicken came home to roast” • In March of 1964, Malcom publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam. He also expressed a desire to work with other civil rights leaders saying Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so. • After splitting from the Nation of Islam, MALCOM began learning the Tenets and practices of Sunni Islam. • He founded the Muslim Mosque Inc. A religious organization and the organization of the Afro-American Unity, a non-religious group promoting Pan-Africanism. • He had soften his position on Martin Luther King Jr, who he met only once in person, and later that year, he performed Hajj, the Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca. This was to be yet another transformative experience for him. • After Mecca, MALCOM made two trips to Africa meeting officials and speaking on radio and television across the continent. • In Cairo (Egypt), he attended the second meeting of the Organisation of African Unity (O.A.U) and met Africa’s most high-profile leaders including Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Gamal Ansel Nasser of Egypt and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria, who all offered him official positions in their respective government. • He met with Fidel Castro and was one of the first African-American leader to meet the newly created Palestine Liberation Organization and was one of the pioneers of a tradition of Black-Palestinian solidarity that would be continued by the Black Panther Party and the Black Lives Matter Movement. • MALCOM’S travel had led him to globalise his perspective, seeing black liberation as something beyond the United States and as something that was intimately tied to struggles for Independence across Africa. THE DEATH OF MALCOLM X • On February 21st, 1965, MALCOLM was addressing the organization of Afri-American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom. • He was shot 21 times • Three Nation of Islam members were tried and convicted of the murder. • The most surprising part if it all was that at the time of his death, MALCOLM was under the surveillance by both the NYPD and the FBI'S COINTELPRO operation. • MALCOLM’S funeral was held in Harlem with the estimated number of people who attended to be 30,000. • Actor and Activist Ossie Davis delivered the eulogy: “Harlem has come to bid farewell to one of it’s brightest hopes extinguished now and gone from us forever. Many would ask what Harlem finds to honor in this stormy controversial and bold young captain, And we will smile. Many will say, turn away from this man, for he is not a man but a demon, a monster, a subverter, and an enemy of the black man. And we will answer and say unto them, Did you ever talk to brother MALCOLM?, Did you ever touch him or have him smile at you?, Did you ever really listen to him?. MALCOLM was our manhood,our living black manhood! This was his meaning to his people. And in honouring him, we honor the best in ourselves. What we place in the ground is no more now a man but a seed, which after the winter of discontent will come forth again to meet us and we shall know him then for what he was and is a Prince. Our own black shining Prince who did not hesitate to die because he loved us so” • That was how the LEGENDARY MALCOLM X was laid to rest. EDITOR'S CLOSING REMARKS ON MALCOLM X MALCOLM X is a Legend whose legacy is still very much visible and inspirational to others. His unique way of expressing his feelings to the world made he loved by so many people. He was fearless, bold, intelligent, smart, and factual In all his speeches. For everyone who is looking for an individual to look up to as a role model, MALCOLM X is the right man from whom you can get one of the best inspirational ideas from. Thank you all for reading this article and feel free to drop you comments, suggestions or complaints, we will address them fast and with honesty.